With sharply rising numbers of orphaned and abandoned children in many less-wealthy countries of the world, policy makers have emphasized the importance of caring for children in family-based rather than institutional settings.  A large study carried out by researchers from Duke University at six sites in five countries found that “health, emotional and cognitive functioning, and physical growth were no worse for institution-living than community-living” children, and that the difference in care settings accounted for a very small percentage of the variability in outcomes.  The research group included Kathryn Whetten, Jan Ostermann, Rachel A. Whetten, Brian W. Pence, Karen O’Donnell, Lynne C. Messer, and Nathan M. Thielman; their paper is titled: A Comparison of the Wellbeing of Orphans and Abandoned Children Ages 6–12 in Institutional and Community-Based Care Settings in 5 Less Wealthy Nations.  The study was reported in the New York Times in  a piece called “Study Suggests Orphanages are Not So Bad” by Denise Grady.