This study, published in The Lancet, concludes that “Selective abortion of girls, especially for pregnancies after a firstborn girl, has increased substantially in India.” The authors sought to explain increasingly large differences between the census numbers of young girls and boys reported in 1991 (4.2 million), 2001 (6 million) and 2011 (7.1 million).  Based on their investigation, it appears that sex-selective abortion is not common for first pregnancies or second pregnancies after a firstborn son, and it is more common in wealthier and more educated households.  See also this news story: Jim Yardley, “As Wealth and Literacy Rise in India, Report Says, So Do Sex-Selective Abortions” (NY Times May 24, 2011).